The Chidambaram temple located at 250 Km to the south of Chennai in Tamil Nadu. It is the most well known saivite temple with main deity as Nataraja enshrined in the Chitsabha or the Hall of Consciousness in the Anand Tandavam or the dance of bliss posture. It is also one of the most ancient and most celebrated shrines in India. Lord Shiva is also worshipped in the formless form of the Chidambara Rahasyam.
The temple is known for its Akasa Lingam, an embodiment of Shiva as the formless Space. The place is one of the Panchabhoota Stalams representing the five elements such as wind at Kalahasti, water at Tiruvanaikka, fire at Tiruvannamalai, earth at Kanchipuram and space at Chidambaram.
The Chidambaram was one of the 5 dance Halls of Shiva (Kanakasabhai).The other dance halls are Madurai, Tiruvalankadu, Tirunelveli and Kutralam. When people refer to 'koil', the word mainly denotes the temple in Chidambaram. It is also referred as Thillai, Puliyur, Chittambalam, Vyagrapuram and Pundareekapuram.
The temple occupying an area of about 51 acres has four imposing towers on its four sides. Each of these towers rising to about 135 ft is comprised of 7 storeys apart from 13 copper 'Kalasam' (finials).
The innermost sanctum of the temple, houses the grand images of Shiva (Nataraja) and Parvati (Sivakami) in the ChitSabha or the hall of consciousness. The Chitsabha which is the holiest shrine in the temple has a wooden structure supported with wooden pillars and a hut shaped roof. To the right of Shiva, is the revered Chidambara rahasyam or a representation of emptiness garlanded with golden vilva leaves.
The curtain in front of the Chidambara Rahasyam is lifted ceremoniously during worship services. There are also the images of Ratnasabhapati, the Spatika Lingam of Chandramauleeswara, Swarnakarshana Bhairavar, Mukhalingam etc.
The ChitSabha itself is a meter or so higher than the Kanakasabha and is reached by a flight of 5 silver plated steps, marking the five aksharas or syllables of the Panchakshara Mantram.
The Nritta sabha has the image of Shiva in the Urdhva tandava posture, winning over Kaali in a dance duel, and an image of Sharabheswara, another form of Shiva.
The Nritta Sabha looks like a chariot drawn by horses.
The Deva Sabha or the house of Gods is also in the second prakaram, housing festival images of the Pancha Murtis such as Somaskandar, Parvati, Vinayaka, Subramanya and Chandikeswara.
The outermost prakaram has the grand Sivakami Amman temple, the Sivaganga tank and the 1000 pillared hall or the Raja Sabha. The Subramanya shrine is also in the form of a chariot, and is referred to as the 'Pandya Nayakam'.
Rishi Madyandinar’s son worshipped the Lingam, in the forest of Thillai. He used to get up before daybreak and get flowers for Shiva. One day when he gets up, it was too dark to get the flower and in the daybreak the flowers were all polluted by the bees. This made him grief stricken. Lord Shiva gives him the eyes and limbs of a tiger so that he could see in the dark and climb trees easily to collect the flowers. Thus he came to be known as 'Vyagrapadar' and the forest where he lived as 'Vyagrapuram' or 'Puliyoor'.
During the same time, the rishis living in the forest known as 'Tharukavanam' became very arrogant about their knowledge and Shiva wishes to teach them a lesson. He appeared as a handsome mendicant with Vishnu as his wife Mohini and this created chaos in 'Tharukavanam' as the wives of the rishis fell under the spell of this charming, handsome Shiva while the youthful rishis fell for the allure of Mohini.
The older rishis being very angry decides to destroy the pair. They created a sacrificial fire from which came a tiger. Lord Shiva killed the tiger and tied its skin around his waist. Then a poisonous serpent was created which was worn by Shiva around his neck. The demon Muyalakan was sent against the lord whom he crushed under his feet. Then the sacrificial fire was sent which was put on the lord’s hand. Later, frustrated rishis sent the vedic mantras which the Lord Shiva worn around his ankles.
The rishis admitted their defeat and the lord revealed himself by dancing “Oorthava Thandavam” with his matted hair unfurling in all eight directions. When the Lord Vishnu described this incident to Adishesha, the serpent wanted to see this dance, taking the leave of Vishnu went to Lord Shiva and prayed him to grant the honour of witnessing his dance. Shiva advised him to go to Vyagrapuram where he would perform this dance one day. Adishesha was reborn as Patanjali and approached Vyagrapadar telling him his quest. Both of them prayed the lord Shiva again. On an auspicious day the celestial beings arrived at Thillai and assembled where Vyagrapadar had his temple. Lord Shiva appeared with one of his right hands beating the drums and the other hand bestowing grace. With His left hand holding the fire and the other pointing to his right leg trampling Muyalakan under the foot he stood with his left leg raised in a dancing pose. Goddess Kali who was the guardian of the forest in Thillai, refused to allow Lord Shiva to dance in her place. Lord Shiva therefore challenged her to a dance competition on the condition that if he wins then she would be banished from that area.
The competition began with Naradha playing the veena, Nandikeswara playing the drums and other celestial musicians accompanying with their instruments. Lord Shiva danced with his hair flung in all directions. With the 'vedas' as his anklets, the serpent as his waist band, the tiger skin as his attire with Ganga and the crescent moon on his crest, he performed the 'Ananda thandavam'.
At one stage, Lord Shiva took a pose with his left foot raised above his head but modesty prevented Goddess Kali matching the same pose. Thus having lost the competition took her residence in the northern end of Chidambaram in the Thillaiamman temple. It is believed that every devotee who comes to Chidambaram after worshipping at the Natarajar temple must visit this temple too.
There are two annual Bhrammotsavams at Chidambaram celebrated with great significance involving the colorful processions of festival deities in the car streets.
An Introduction to Hinduism
Known as “Santana Dharma” in
Sanskrit, the Hinduism is the world's oldest organized and
most profound religion. It is the everlasting religion which
was founded, exists and flourishes in India. It is not
founded by a single leader and does ...
The earliest literary creations were the Rig-Veda, the Sama
Veda, the Yajur Veda and the Atharva Veda. The Vedas had the
Mantras or the hymns, the Brahmanas or the ritual and the
ceremonies, the Aranyakas or the forest speculations and ...
The Upanisads being diverse in character and outlook
recognize the intuition rather than reason as a path to
ultimate truth. Even though there are supposed to be 108 or
more Upanishads, twelve of them are recognized as the
principal units. ...
The Epics of India
In the period of the Epics which succeeded the period of the
Upanisads, the Ramayana and the Mahabharat, philosophical
doctrines were presented in the form of stories and
parables. The Avatars or the incarnations of Vishnu, assume
a prominent place ...
The Bhagavad-Gita contains the essence of Indian teaching
about the duties of life as well as spiritual obligations.
It emphasizes on the importance of knowledge, charity,
penance and worship. It is referred as the song of the
divine one, the ...
The Dharma Sastras
The Dharma Sastras contain
treatises on ethical and social philosophy compiled to deal
systematically with the proper conduct of life and describe
social, ethical and religious obligations. The Sruti and the
Smriti are the two authoritative sources of Hinduism. Sruti
The Puranas being expressed in
the form of parables and narratives have become the
scripture for the common people. They are encyclopedias
furnishing an image of spiritual, religious, social,
political and cultural life comprising an astonishingly
varied repertory of folklore ...
Influence of Buddhism and Jainism
Buddhism is a religion with a complex history and system of
beliefs. Its four noble truths comprise the essence of
Buddha's teachings. They are the truth of suffering, the
truth of the cause of suffering, the truth of the end ...
Influence of Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism sometimes referred as the heart of Hinduism is
the largest community within the Hinduism worshipping the
God Lord Vishnu. There are many divisions focusing on one
form or avatar of Vishnu. The twelve Alvars laid the
foundations for the ...
Various influences on Hinduism
Influence of Sri Adi Shankaracharya on HinduismThe influence
of Sri Adi Shankaracharya on Hinduism is remarkable. During
his short but active life, he traveled all over the country,
refuting atheistic and materialistic systems of thought,
writing commentaries on the Upanisads, ...
On Hindu Gods and Goddesses
The Hindus believe in the
Supreme Being and think that he is the god of all religions.
The cosmic activity of the Supreme Being has three important
tasks such as the creation, the preservation and the
dissolution and the recreation. ...
Hindu God - Lord Ganesha
Lord Ganesha is a unique Hindu
deity in the human form with the head of an elephant. He is
believed to be the power of the Supreme Being which removes
the obstacles and ensures success in human endeavors. So
Hindu God - Lord Brahma
Lord Brahma symbolizes the creation aspect of the Supreme
Reality. Being the first member of the Hindu Trinity, he is
called as the creator of the Universe. His divine consort is
Saraswati who is the Goddess of learning and knowledge. ...
Hindu God - Lord Vishnu
Lord Vishnu is the God of preservation in the Universe
preserving and sustaining the Universe. The four arms of the
lord signify his omnipresence and omnipotence. The two front
arms indicate the lord's activity in the physical world and
Hindu God - Lord Shiva
Lord Shiva is the God of
recreation in the cyclic process of creation, preservation,
dissolution and recreation of the universe. He is also
referred as the destructor. His cosmic role is to balance
between the opposing forces of good and ...
Hindu God - Goddess Durga
Goddess Durga maintains the moral order and the
righteousness in the creation. In Sanskrit, the word Durga
means a fort or a place that is protected and thus difficult
to reach. Goddess Durga is also called as the Divine Mother,
Hindu God - Goddess Lakshmi
Goddess Lakshmi is symbolism of wealth and prosperity. In
Sanskrit, the word ''Lakshmi'' means "goal." She represents
the goal of life including worldly and spiritual prosperity.
She is also called as Shri, who is the divine spouse of Lord
Hindu God - Goddess Saraswati
Goddess Saraswati is the deity of learning, knowledge, and
wisdom. In Sanskrit, the word Saraswati means "the essence
of the self." Goddess Saraswati is the divine wife of Lord
Brahma. She is the creative power of Brahma. She is
More Hindu Gods
Hindu God - Lord RamaLord Rama being the seventh incarnation
of Lord Vishnu, worshipping him is very popular among all
Hindus. In temples Rama is accompanied by his faithful wife,
Sita, devoted brother Lakshmana and beloved devotee Hanuman.
The great ...
Influence of Navagraha on your life
Navagraha or the nine planets influence the life of every
person. It can either give harmony or misery to the
individual as per its movements. There are Shanthis and
Parikaras specific to each planet to get rid of the evil ...
The Hindu philosophy is the longest surviving philosophy
with several historical stages. The various schools of
philosophy had different approaches to reality but they
considered the Vedas as the authoritative and believed in
the permanent individual self, Atman. Most of ...
The Samkhya School of Philosophy
The Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical
systems in Hinduism postulating that the universe consists
of two eternal realities such as the Purusha or the soul and
the Prakriti or the matter or nature. Being the silent
The Yoga School of Philosophy
The Yoga which is considered to have arisen from the Samkhya
philosophy has its primary text as the Bhagavad Gita. It
explores the four primary systems of the Karma-Yoga, the
Buddhi-Yoga, the Dhyana-Yoga and the Bhakti-Yoga. Being many
million years ...
The Nyaya School of Philosophy
The Nyaya School of philosophy is based on texts called the
Nyaya Sutras. They were written by Aksapada Gautama. The
most important contribution of this school is its
methodology based on a system of logic that has been adopted
The Vaisheshika School of Philosophy
Founded by the sage Kanada, the Vaisheshika School of
philosophy postulates an atomic pluralism. Accordingly all
objects in the physical universe are reducible to a certain
number of atoms, and the God is regarded as the fundamental
force causing the ...
The Purva Mimamsa School of Philosophy
The Purva Mimamsa School established the authority of the
Vedas through the formulation of the rules of Vedic
interpretation. Its believers assumed that one must have
unquestionable faith in the Vedas and perform the
fire-sacrifices or yajnas regularly. Accordingly, it ...
The Vedanta School of Philosophy
The Vedanta School of Philosophy was also known as the
Uttara Mimamsa school, concentrated on the philosophical
teachings of the Upanishads rather than on the ritualistic
injunctions of the Brahmanas.With the traditional Vedic
karma kanda being continued to be practiced ...
Hinduism as a Religion
Hinduism is a religion with various gods and goddesses. It
differs from other organized religions in many aspects. It
is neither based on a particular founder nor on a book and
is not controlled by a central institution or authority. ...
Worship at Temple
Even though the god is omnipresent, there should be a way to
worship him and get his grace. The temples are built for the
same purpose to focus the power of the lord in a consecrated
idol. They are the ...
Temple Architecture of India
The Hindu temples developed over two thousand years depict
excellent architectural evolution which took place within
the boundaries of strict models derived from religious
considerations. In Hindu tradition, the Temple architecture
is a religious architecture which is connected to astronomy
Temple Arts of India
Mural PaintingsMural Paintings are the most common temple
paintings and its evolution in temples can be traced from
Ajanta to Kerala. Linked intrinsically with Indian painting
traditions, the Murals are the earliest evidences unearthed
from the remnants of ancient civilization. ...
Forms of Hindu worship
The process of worship in Hinduism involves the use of three
basic techniques such as the mantra, the tantra and the
yantra. The mantra symbolizes the path of knowledge, the
tantra symbolizes the path of devotion and the yantra
About Hindu Prayers
The Hindu Prayer is the part and parcel of the Vedic
lifestyle. The vedas have the large collection of mantras
and prayer rituals extolling a single supreme force,
Brahman. The prayer of Brahman is focused on the personal
forms of ...
Darshan in Hinduism
In Sanskrit, the word “Darshan” means the sight, or the
vision, or the apparition, or the glimpse. It is used for
the vision of the divine mainly of a god or a very holy
person or artifact. Darshan is the ...
Pooja in Hinduism
The Pooja is another form of worship to the deities of the
Hindu Religion which involves prayers, offerings and
sacrifices. The Hindu devotees perform the Pooja in a fixed,
ritualistic pattern. It is believed to establish a bridge
between the ...
Pradakshina in Hinduism
The parikrama or the pradakshina or the circumambulation
means circling the sacred object. It has deeper meaning in
the religious space connecting the devotee to the cosmos. It
is performed by circumambulating around a sacred person,
sacred image, a sacred ...
Prasad in Hinduism
The word ‘prasad’ implies to give peace. It is the sacred
offering of the god. During any form of worship, Hindus
offer certain items to god. Based on the ability of the
devotee, many types of items are offered like
Basic norms to be followed in a temple
The house of worship for Hindus is the temple. It is in this
place the divine relationship with the god can be easily
accomplished. It is the place reserved for religious and
spiritual activities. There are many elaborate measures
Temples of Andhra Pradesh - Sri Venkateswara Temple, Tirupathi
Sri Venkateswara temple is an ancient and sacred temple
located on the seventh peak, Venkatachala or Venkata Hill of
the Tirupati Hill. It lies on the southern banks of Sri
Swami Pushkarini. The deity Venkateswara is also called as
Temples of Andhra Pradesh - Srisailam Temple
The Srisailam temple is situated on the border of the
ancient sacred hill of Srigiri on the south bank of the
Krishna River, in the Nallamalai range of Andhra Pradesh at
232 km south of Hyderabad. The Srisailam is also
Temples of Andhra Pradesh - Bhadrachalam Sri Rama Temple
The Bhadrachalam Sri Rama temple, being the abode of Lord
Rama is situated in Khamman district on the bank of the holy
river Godavari at a distance of 325 kms from Hyderabad. Lord
Rama is said to have crossed the ...
Temples of Andhra Pradesh - Sri Kalahasthi Temple
The Sri Kalahasti temple is an ancient temple dedicated to
Lord Shiva and is one of the Pancha Bhoota Stalams. The
Pancha Bhoota Stalam is related to the temples celebrating
Shiva as the embodiment of the primary elements. The air ...
Temples of Andhra Pradesh - Amareswara Swamy Temple
The Amareswara Swamy temple is located on a small hillock
referred to as Krouncha Shaila in Amaravati, about 15 miles
away from Guntur near Vijayawada in Andhra Pradesh. This
temple constitutes one of the five Pancharama temples of
Andhra Pradesh ...
More Temples of Andhra Pradesh
Warangal Temple, Andhra Pradesh The Warangal temple is the
Thousand Pillar Temple which is situated at 4-km from
Hanumakonda crossroad in Warangal district. It is a fine
specimen of Kakatiya architecture and sculpture built in the
style of Chalukya ...
Major Temples of Goa
Temples of Goa > Sri Shanta Durga TempleShri Devi
Shantadurga temple is located at Kavlem in Ponda Taluk of
Goa. This temple is the biggest temple in Goa. The temple
constructed during the reign of Maratha ruler Shahu Raje of
Major Temples of Gujarat
Major Temples of Gujarat > Sri Somanath TempleSri
Somnath temple is known as the Eternal Shrine as it has
withstood the shocks of time and the attacks of the
destroyers. Situated in Prabhas Kshetra in Saurashtra at 79
kms from ...
Major Temples of Jammu and Kashmir
Temples of Jammu and Kashmir - Amarnath Temple The
Amarnath temple is one of the most revered pilgrimage places
in India. The cave is located at 86 miles north east of
Srinagar at 13000 feet above sea level. Surrounded ...
Temples of Karnataka - Annapoorneshwari Temple
Sri Annapoorneshwari Temple is located at Horanadu around
100 Kms from Chikmagalur. It is an ancient and revered
shrine located in amidst thick forests and valleys. The
Deity of the temple is Sri Annapoorneshwari, a form of
Parvati. This idol ...
Temples of Karnataka - Badami Caves
Being the capital of Chalukyas, Badami located at the mouth
of a ravine between two rocky hills has the world famous
cave temples dating back 6th or 7th centuries. These temples
are all hewn out of sand stone on the ...
Temples of Karnataka - Chamundeshwari Temple
The Chamundeshwari temple is located on the top of Chamundi
Hill which is about 3 kms from Mysore City. There are about
one thousand steps to the hill. The temple is believed to be
built in 12th century by Hoysalas ...
Temples of Karnataka - Shri Dharmasthala Temple
Shri Dharmasthala temple located in the village of
Dharmasthala, in Belthangady Taluk of South Kanara District
of Karnataka State. It is one of the most sacred places in
South India. It is situated in on the Mangalore-Charmady
Road 40 miles ...
Temples of Karnataka - The Gokarna Temple
Gokarna located at a distance of 170 km from Mangalore is a
celebrated pilgrimage center on the coast of Karnataka,
enshrining the Aatma Lingam Mahabaleshwar. It is referred as
one of the 7 Mukti Stalas of Karnataka. The other six ...
Temples of Karnataka - Mookambika Temple
Sri Mookambika temple is situated at the foot of a hill
called Kudashtri at Kollur about 135 kms from Mangalore. It
is one of the seven 'Mukti Sthalams' of Parasurama Kshetra
situated in Karnataka. The deity of the temple is ...
Temples of Karnataka - Sringeri Temple
The Sringeri temple is situated amidst the Sahyadri hills in
Chikmagalur district of Karnataka on the left bank of
Tungabhadra river at 150 km from Mangalore. Being the home
of Sharada Peetham established by the revered saint Sri Adi
Temples of Karnataka - Vishnumurthy Temple
Shree Vishnumurthy Temple is situated in Kulai town at 15
kms north of Mangalore along the west coast high way. It is
one of the ancient Vishnu shrines in Mangalore. Shree
Vishnumurthy, another form of Lord Mahavishnu is the main
Temples of Karnataka - Udupi Sri Krishna Temple
The Udupi Sri Krishna temple located at 60 kms from
Mangalore is one of the most popular shrines dedicated to
Lord Krishna in the southern region of India. It was built
in 13th century and the idol of Krishna was ...
Temples of Kerala - Ambalapuzzha Sri Krishna Temple
The Ambalapuzzha Sri Krishna temple is situated in
Ambalapuzzha, a small town in Alapuzzha district of Kerala
State. It is one of the three important Sri Krishna temples
in the state of Kerala. It is believed to have been built
Temples of Kerala - Thiruvananthapuram Attukal Temple
The Attukal Bhagavathy temple in Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala
is one of the ancient temples of South India and is
popularly known as the Sabarimala of the Women. The Goddess
in the temple of Attukal is worshipped as the Supreme
Mother. The ...
Temples of Kerala - Sree Guruvayoorappan Temple
Located at 29 km north-west of Thrissur District of Kerala,
the Guruvayur is one of the most important pilgrimage
centers of South India. It is called as the Bhoolokavaikunta
meaning the heaven on the Earth. It is also called as ...
Temples of Kerala - Sri Padmanabhaswamy Temple
Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple, located inside the East Fort in
Thiruvananthapuram of Kerala is dedicated to Lord Padmanabha,
a form of Vishnu. The temple has Vishnu enshrined in
Anananthasayanam posture which is in eternal sleep of
yognidra. Sri Padmanabhaswamy ...
Temples of Kerala - Sabarimala Temple
About Sabarimala Sree Swamy
Ayyappa Temple Sri Sabarimala Sree Swamy Ayyappa temple
situated in the Western Ghats Mountains at an elevation of
4135 feet above sea level is the most famous and prominent
among all the Shastha temples. ...
Temples of Kerala - Thirunavaya Temple
The Thiruvanaya Navamukunda Temple, located at 8 km south of
Tirur, near Ponnani in Malappuram district on the banks of
the river Bharathapuzha is popular for holding immense
historical importance. In this place, Mamangam, a grand
assembly of the rulers ...
Temples of Kerala - Thirunelli Temple
The Thirunelli Temple located at 30 kms from Mananthavadi in
Wayanad of Kerala is an ancient temple dedicated to Lord
Vishnu on the side of Brahmagiri hills close to Papanasini
River which is believed to have curative effects on the ...
Temples of Kerala- Vadakkunnathan Temple
The Vadakkkunnathan Temple located in Thrissur of Kerala is
one of the largest temples in Kerala which is dedicated to
Lord Shiva. This 1000 year old temple is a classic example
of the Kerala style of architecture with beautiful murals
Temples of Kerala- Chottanikkara Bhagavathy Temple
The Chottanikkara Bhagavathy Temple located at 17kms from
Ernakulam of Kerala is one of the most celebrated Hindu
shrines of Kerala. The main deity being Rajarajeswari or
Adiparasakthi or Durga Bhagavathy or the mother Goddess was
brought from Mookambika Temple ...
Major Temples of Maharastra
Temples of Maharastra - Mumbai Devi MandirMaa Mumbadevi
temple in Mumbai is temple of Goddess Shakthi. The name of
the city Mumbai is also derived from Maa Mumbadevi. The
original temple built in 1737 at Victoria Terminus Station
in Bori ...
Temples of Orissa - Jagannath Temple
The Jagannath temple is situated in Puri, on the east coast
of India, in the state of Orissa. The main presiding deity
is Lord Krishna or Jagannath. It is an ancient shrine having
a wooden image. There are also wooden ...
Temples of Orissa - Konark Temple
The Konark temple is a colossal temple dedicated to the Sun
god. It is a magnificiant temple with extremely beautiful
sculptures reflecting the genius of the architects. The
combination of Konark with Bhubaneshwar and Puri is referred
as the golden ...
Temples of Rajasthan - Ambika Mata Temple
The Ambikamata Temple is
situated in Jagat about 58 km from Udaipur. It is called as
the Khajuraho of Rajasthan. Even though the temple is small
in size, it is quite detailed and dates back to the
Pratihara period. Durga, ...
Temples of Tamil Nadu - Chidambaram Temple
The Chidambaram temple located at 250 Km to the south of
Chennai in Tamil Nadu. It is the most well known saivite
temple with main deity as Nataraja enshrined in the
Chitsabha or the Hall of Consciousness in the Anand ...
Temples of Tamil Nadu - Madurai Meenakshi Temple
The Madurai Meenakshi Sundareswarar temple is one of the
greatest temples of Meenakshi in India. It is also known for
its sprawling landscape filled with sculptured halls,
pillars and lofty towers with lavish artwork in all forms.
Madurai is also ...
Temples of Tamil Nadu - Rameshwara Temple
The Rameshwara temple is one of the holiest shrines of India
having one of the twelve Jyotirlingams. It is a huge temple
situated in the island of Rameshwaram at about 160 km
southeast of Madurai which can be reached through ...
Temples of Tamil Nadu - Palani Temple
The Palani temple is situated in
the district of Madurai about 112 km from Madurai and 152 km
from Trichi. Lord Murugan called Thandayudapani is the
presiding deity of the temple. This temple is on the 450
feet high Palani ...
Major Temples of West Bengal
Temples of West Bengal -
Dakshineswar TempleThe Dakshineswar Kali Temple is located
alongside the Vivekananda Bridge north of Calcutta. It is
believed that Saint Ramakrishna Paramahamsa achieved
spiritual vision in this place. This temple is dedicated to
goddess Kali. ...